Lead-acid batteries manufacturing process and formula

Lead-acid batteries are a common type of battery used to store and release electrical energy. They are usually composed of positive plates, negative plates, electrolyte, separators, casings and terminals. Its manufacturing process and formula is a complex and precise process that requires careful design and control to ensure battery performance, stability and lifespan. The following is an overview of the general lead-acid battery manufacturing process and formula:

positive plates, negative plates

Lead-acid batteries manufacturing process

1. Material preparation

The main components of lead-acid batteries include positive and negative plates and electrolyte. The positive plate is usually made of lead-calcium alloy, while the negative plate is made of pure lead or lead-tin alloy. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid, usually concentrated sulfuric acid. At this stage, the purity and quality of the materials need to be ensured to ensure battery performance.

2. Preparation of positive and negative plates

The preparation of positive and negative plates of lead-acid batteries is a critical step. The lead alloy is melted and cast into plate form, and the positive plate is then anodized to enhance its performance. The negative plate is vulcanized to improve the charging performance of the battery. This stage requires highly precise control to ensure that the structure and performance of the positive and negative plates meet the design requirements.

3. Electrolyte preparation

The preparation of electrolyte is one of the key factors that determine battery performance. Concentrated sulfuric acid is the main ingredient and usually needs to be diluted in water. In addition, some auxiliary agents, such as selenic acid, phosphoric acid, etc., can be added to improve the conductivity and stability of the battery. Precise electrolyte formulation is key to ensuring consistent battery performance.

4. Battery assembly

During the battery assembly stage, the positive and negative plates are stacked crosswise and separated by separators to prevent short circuits. Electrolyte is injected into the battery, which is then encapsulated and the electrodes connected. This step requires a high degree of technical and instrumentation support to ensure the quality and consistency of battery components.

5. Charging

After completing the battery assembly, the battery needs to be charged for the first time. In the charging chamber, the battery undergoes electrochemical reactions to form the active materials of the positive and negative electrodes. This process is key to the battery life cycle and has an important impact on battery performance and life.

6. Maturity and testing

After charging is completed, the battery needs to go through a period of maturation. At this stage, the chemical reactions inside the battery become stable and the performance gradually reaches the design standards. Subsequently, the battery is subjected to rigorous testing, including capacity testing, cycle life testing, etc., to ensure that the battery’s performance meets specifications.

Lead-acid battery

Lead-acid battery formula

1. Positive plate formula

The main component of the positive plate is lead-calcium alloy. In order to improve the stability and life of the battery, a small amount of antimony, tin and other elements can be added to the alloy. In addition, adding some stabilizers, such as bismuth, selenium, etc., can help improve the cycle life and overcharge resistance of the battery.

2. Negative plate formula

The negative plate is usually made of pure lead or a lead-tin alloy. Adding an appropriate amount of tin can improve the charging performance of the battery. At the same time, some anti-corrosion and conductivity-enhancing substances can also be added to the negative plate to improve the overall performance of the battery.

3. Electrolyte formula

The main component of the electrolyte is sulfuric acid, and its concentration is usually between 30-40%. In order to improve the performance of the electrolyte, some stabilizers, selenic acid, phosphoric acid, etc. can be added. These additives help improve the battery’s conductivity, stability and corrosion resistance.

To sum up, the manufacturing process and formula of lead-acid batteries is a highly precise and complex process. Precise control of materials, processes and formulations throughout the manufacturing process is key to ensuring battery performance and longevity. As technology continues to advance, the manufacturing process and formula of lead-acid batteries are constantly optimized to meet the growing demand for energy storage.


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