What is battery vulcanization

On the surface of the internal electrode plate of a battery, there is a layer of white and hard crystals attached. Even after charging,
the surface of the electrode plate cannot be peeled off and the lead sulfate, which is converted into an active substance, is called sulfation, abbreviated as “sulfurization”.


The internal resistance of the battery increases, and the charging voltage reaches the charging termination voltage earlier than before vulcanization.
The higher the current, the more obvious it becomes. The acid density is below normal. The discharge capacity decreases, and the larger the discharge current,
the more significant the capacity decrease. During charging, bubbles may form, causing a rapid increase in charging temperature. In severe cases, it can lead to inability to charge.


According to the double sulfation theory of batteries, after each discharge, the different active substances in the positive and negative plates of the battery are transformed into lead sulfate,
which is reduced back to different active substances after charging.
However, frequent over discharge, low current deep discharge, low-temperature high current discharge, untimely replenishment, insufficient charging, high acid density, internal water
shortage of the battery, and long-term storage can cause excessive accumulation of lead sulfate on the surface of the electrode and dissolve in the electrolyte, resulting in saturation.
These lead sulfate particles crystallize and precipitate on the surface of the electrode under fluctuations in temperature and acid concentration.

Due to the tendency of polycrystalline systems to reduce their surface free energy, the crystallization after recombination precipitation tends to increase and thicken. Due to the fact that
lead sulfate is a insoluble electrolyte, the specific surface area of the restructured crystal decreases, resulting in a decrease in solubility and dissolution rate in the electrolyte.

The adhesion of lead sulfate to the surface and micropores of the electrode hinders the normal diffusion and reflection of the battery, and the poor conductivity of lead sulfate has a high
resistance value, which leads to an increase in Ohmic polarization and concentration polarization during normal charging, a decrease in charging acceptance rate, and a polarization voltage
that produces water decomposition before the active substance is fully converted. The rapid heating of the battery prevents charging from continuing and leads to incomplete conversion
of the active substance, thus becoming the reason for reduced capacity and shortened lifespan.


Timely replenish electricity after each discharge and ensure sufficient electricity, especially after high current discharge. During low current discharge, try to control the discharge depth as much as possible. The lead sulfate produced by low current deep discharge is too dense. After discharge, charge for a long time with low current. For low-temperature high current discharge, an additional 30% charging amount should be used to restore capacity. Batteries that have been left unused for a long time should be fully charged before being put aside, and should be recharged appropriately every two months after being put aside.


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